LUNG CANCER: A meta-analysis of osimertinib treatment for brain metastasis reported CNS ORR 64%.

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April 6, 2020

SCIENTIFIC

Assessment of Effectiveness and Safety of Osimertinib for Patients With Intracranial Metastatic Disease

JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e201617. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.1617
 
Abstract

Importance  Intracranial metastatic disease (IMD) is a serious and life-altering complication for many patients with cancer. Targeted therapy may address the limitations of current treatments as an additional agent to achieve intracranial disease control in some patients with IMD. Given the paucity of evidence regarding effectiveness, current guidelines have not made recommendations on the use of targeted therapy. Osimertinib mesylate is a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and inhibit tumor cell survival and proliferation in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with specific EGFR alterations.

Objective  To assess the effectiveness and safety of osimertinib in the management of IMD.

Data Sources  Studies were selected from MEDLINE and Embase databases from their inception to September 20, 2019, using the following search query: (osimertinib OR mereletinib OR tagrisso OR tamarix OR azd9291) AND (brain metastases OR intracranial metastatic disease OR cns).

Study Selection  Studies reporting intracranial outcomes for patients with metastatic EGFR-variant NSCLC and IMD treated with osimertinib were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Among 271 records identified in the systematic review, 15 studies fulfilled eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis.

Data Extraction and Synthesis  Data were extracted from published studies and supplements. These data were pooled using a random-effects model. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Information extracted included study characteristics, intracranial effectiveness measures, and safety measures. Meta-analyses of proportions were conducted to pool estimates for central nervous system (CNS) objective response rate and CNS disease control rate.

Results  Fifteen studies reporting on 324 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The CNS objective response rate was 64% (95% CI, 53%-76%; n = 195), and CNS disease control rate was 90% (95% CI, 85%-93%; n = 246). Included studies reported complete intracranial response rates of 7% to 23%, median best decrease in intracranial lesion size of −40% to −64%, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) grade 3 or higher adverse event rates of 19% to 39%. Subgroup analyses did not reveal additional sources of heterogeneity.

Conclusions and Relevance  Findings reported herein support a potential role for osimertinib in the treatment of patients with metastatic EGFR-variant NSCLC and IMD treated with osimertinib. Clinical decision makers would benefit from the inclusion of patients with IMD in future trials to identify factors that predict responses to targeted therapy.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2763239