LUNG CANCER: New drugs targeting EGFR (lazertinib) and ALK/ROS1 (lorlatinib) have shown efficacy in phase 1/2 trials in NSCLC.

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Dec. 9, 2019

SCIENTIFIC

LUNG CANCER: New drugs targeting EGFR (lazertinib) and ALK/ROS1 (lorlatinib) have shown efficacy in phase 1/2 trials in NSCLC. Lorlatinib is brain penetrant and delivered intracranial responses.

 

"Lazertinib in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: results from the dose escalation and dose expansion parts of a first-in-human, open-label, multicentre, phase 1–2 study "

Myung-Ju Ahn at al.; The Lancet Oncology VOLUME 20, ISSUE 12, P1681-1690, DECEMBER 01, 2019

 

Summary

Background

Patients with EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) given EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) inevitably become resistant to first-generation or second-generation drugs. We assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and activity of lazertinib—an irreversible, third-generation, mutant-selective, EGFR TKI—in patients with advanced NSCLC progressing after EGFR TKI therapy. Methods This first-in-human, open-label, multicentre, phase 1–2 study had three parts: dose escalation, dose expansion, and dose extension; here, we report results on dose escalation and dose expansion. The study was done in 14 hospitals in Korea. Eligible patients were aged 20 years or older and had advanced NSCLC harbouring an activating EGFR mutation and progressing after first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKI treatment, a defined tumour T790M mutation status, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–1, at least one measurable extracranial lesion, defined according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, and adequate organ function. Patients were enrolled to seven dose-escalation cohorts according to a rolling six design; five cohorts were expanded. Patients were given oral lazertinib 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, 120 mg, 160 mg, 240 mg, or 320 mg once daily continuously in 21-day cycles. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability and secondary endpoints included objective response in evaluable patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03046992, and the phase 2 extension study is ongoing.

Findings

Between Feb 15, 2017, and May 28, 2018, 127 patients were enrolled into the dose escalation group (n=38) and dose expansion group (n=89). No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. There was no dose-dependent increase in adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events were grade 1–2 rash or acne (in 38 [30%] of 127 patients) and pruritus (in 34 [27%]). Grade 3 or grade 4 adverse events occurred in 20 (16%) patients, with the most common being grade 3 pneumonia (four [3%]). Treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in four (3%) patients; treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in six patients (5%). There were no adverse events with an outcome of death and no treatment-related deaths. The proportion of patients achieving an objective response by independent central review assessment was 69 (54%; 95% CI 46–63) of 127.

Interpretation

Lazertinib had a tolerable safety profile and showed promosing clinical activity in patients with NSCLC progressing on or after EGFR TKI therapy. Our findings provide a rationale for further clinical investigations.

 

"Lorlatinib in advanced ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 1–2 trial "

Prof Alice T Shaw,et al; The Lancet Oncology; VOLUME 20, ISSUE 12, P1691-1701, DECEMBER 01, 2019

Summary

Background

Lorlatinib is a potent, brain-penetrant, third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets ALK and ROS1 with preclinical activity against most known resistance mutations in ALK and ROS1. We investigated the antitumour activity and safety of lorlatinib in advanced, ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods

In this open-label, single-arm, phase 1–2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged ≥18 years) with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC, with or without CNS metastases, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less (≤1 for phase 1 only) from 28 hospitals in 12 countries worldwide. Lorlatinib 100 mg once daily (escalating doses of 10 mg once daily to 100 mg twice daily in phase 1 only) was given orally in continuous 21-day cycles until investigator-determined disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent, or death. The primary endpoint was overall and intracranial tumour response, assessed by independent central review. Activity endpoints were assessed in patients who received at least one dose of lorlatinib. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01970865.

Findings

Between Jan 22, 2014, and Oct 2, 2016, we assessed 364 patients, of whom 69 with ROS1-positive NSCLC were enrolled. 21 (30%) of 69 patients were TKI-naive, 40 (58%) had previously received crizotinib as their only TKI, and eight (12%) had previously received one non-crizotinib ROS1 TKI or two or more ROS1 TKIs. The estimated median duration of follow-up for response was 21·1 months (IQR 15·2–30·3). 13 (62%; 95% CI 38–82) of 21 TKI-naive patients and 14 (35%; 21–52) of 40 patients previously treated with crizotinib as their only TKI had an objective response. Intracranial responses were achieved in seven (64%; 95% CI 31–89) of 11 TKI-naive patients and 12 (50%; 29–71) of 24 previous crizotinib-only patients. The most common grade 3–4 treatment-related adverse events were hypertriglyceridaemia (13 [19%] of 69 patients) and hypercholesterolaemia (ten [14%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in five (7%) of 69 patients. No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation

Lorlatinib showed clinical activity in patients with advanced ROS1-positive NSCLC, including those with CNS metastases and those previously treated with crizotinib. Because crizotinib-refractory patients have few treatment options, lorlatinib could represent an important next-line targeted agent.